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(一)发展因素分析

1、有利因素

(1)核电“十三五”规划拉动核电阀门的市场需求

核电作为公认的清洁能源,随着核电技术的发展,其安全性与经济性得以提升,逐渐受到人们推崇。核电阀门是核电项目中用量较大的设备,随着行业的快速发展,核电阀门的需求规模将不断扩大。

根据《“十三五”核工业发展规划》等文件,到2020年,核电运行装机容量争取达到4,000万千瓦;核电年发电量达到2,600-2,800亿千瓦时。在在建和运行核电容量1,696.8万千瓦的基础上,新投产核电装机容量约2,300万千瓦。同时,考虑核电的后续发展,2020年末在建核电容量应保持1,800万千瓦左右。

(2)石化专用阀、超低温阀门等产品市场需求广阔

我国石油石化行业正朝着大型化和规模化方向发展,未来5年内仍将保持可持续发展,国内数十套千万吨级炼油装置和百万吨级乙烯装置面临新建和改扩建,同时,石化行业面临转型升级,如加氢提质、三废回收利用等节能环保项目很多,成为石化用阀门、法兰及锻件新的市场空间。随着清洁能源的推广应用,液化天然气(LNG)的普及使用将会得到进一步重视,超低温阀门的需求也将呈现大幅增长。我国超(超)临界火电机组关键阀门长期依赖进口,不仅增加了电力建设费用,而且不利于国内阀门制造业的技术进步。在大型燃气轮机方面,国家也在投入较大人力、财力鼓励引进、消化、吸收和创新,改变大型燃气轮机及其关键设备依赖进口的局面。在此背景下,石化专用阀、超低温阀门、超(超)临界火电机组用真空蝶阀、大型燃气轮机蒸汽再热阀等产品将面临较为广阔的市场需求。

(3)中端工业阀门市场较为成熟

中端工业阀门市场的主要产品为使用环境较为宽松的工业阀门,一般为碳钢或不锈钢阀门,面向这一市场的阀门产品市场需求量大,需要达到工业级的质量要求,技术含量较高,且终端客户普遍设定合格供应商资格,因此存在一定的行业进入障碍,竞争水平低于低端工业阀门和民用阀门市场,利润水平较高。我国阀门行业的一些大型企业,由于进入国际市场较早,在生产技术和生产工艺方面较为成熟,并且与很多国际级的客户建立起了较为稳定的合作关系,已经在中端阀门市场中占有较为重要的地位。

2、不利因素

(1)行业整体市场集中度较低

全球范围内,阀门行业从业企业数量众多,总体上看竞争较为激烈。以全球视角来看,国际领先阀门企业大多已经登陆资本市场,经历了利用资本市场推动和实现行业整合的过程。相比之下,国内阀门企业整体规模偏小,即便排名前列的行业领先企业也大多没有登陆资本市场,缺少长期资金支持,以实现行业整合。

(2)我国大部分阀门企业仍处于行业的低端市场

低端工业阀门和民用阀门市场的主要产品为铸铁阀门和青铜阀门,面向这一市场的阀门产品需求量大,技术含量低,进入门槛不高,充斥了大量的家庭式、作坊式的小阀门生产企业,市场竞争程度最高,利润水平较低。目前,国内90%以上的阀门出口企业属于零件生产商或贴牌生产商,其中,相当多的企业处于低端工业阀门和民用阀门领域。

(二)产量预测分析

2017年1-3月,我国阀门产量为2,047,425吨,同比下降2.68%。

综合以上因素,中投顾问发布的《2017-2021年中国阀门行业投资分析及前景预测报告》预计,2017年我国阀门产量将达到820万吨,未来五年(2017-2021)年均复合增长率约为1.97%,2021年将达到886万吨。


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