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在生产中,我们有时会发现调节阀、减压阀及其它节流阀产生严重的振动和噪音。实际上产生振动和噪音的同时,这些阀的阀芯、阀座等内部零件被严重冲刷,产生一道道磨痕、深沟及凹坑,有的甚至造成阀杆断裂,这些都严重的影响了阀门的使用性能,降低了使用寿命。

<> 调节阀的振动与噪声根据其诱发因素不同,大致可分为机械振动、气蚀振动和流体(涡流)振动等原因。



导致振动与噪声的因素

气蚀振动

气蚀振动一般发生在液态介质的调节阀内。气蚀产生的根本原因在于调节阀内流体缩流加速和静压下降引起液体汽化。调节阀开度越小,其前后的压差越大,流体加速并产生气蚀的可能性就越大,与之对应的阻塞流压降也就越小。

机械振动

机械振动根据其表现形式可以分为两种状态。一种状态是调节阀的整体振动,即整个调节阀在管道或基座上频繁颤动,其原因是由于管道或基座剧烈振动,引起整个调节阀振动。此外还与频率有关,即当外部的频率与系统的固有频率相等或接近时受迫振动的能量达到最大值、产生共振。另一种状态是调节阀阀瓣的振动,其原因主要是由于介质流速的急剧增加,使调节阀前后差压急剧变化,引起整个调节阀产生严重振荡。

涡流振动

流体在阀门内节流,由于受磨擦、阻力和各种因素的扰动,这就不可避免地产生各式各样的漩涡流,例如流体冲击阀杆、通过缝隙、转弯时在死角处、以及被分流时,都产生漩涡流,漩涡流和圆柱体相互作用,诱发振动,产生漩涡脱离声。一旦气流的激振频率同机械元件的自振频率相耦合,或者同管道内纵向气柱声驻波、横向气柱震荡、热动力冲击、气体动力压缩或其他不稳定流动产生的压力波耦合的时候,振动加大,噪声增大。如果流体流经控制阀产生闪蒸就会形成有气泡存在的气、液两相混合体,两相流体的减速和膨胀作用也会形成噪声。另外,空化作用时,气泡破裂释放出强大的能量,会产生高达10000Hz的噪声,气泡越多,噪声越严重。

如何应对振动与噪声

针对气蚀

首先应避免小开度工作。调节阀开度太小,致使节流口处流速增大,压力迅速减小,流体流经阀门很容易形成闪蒸和气蚀。仪控君在这篇文章中《点击这里》提到了阀门小开度时导致汽蚀造成的危害,大家一定不要忽视。

其次应采用多级分配压降。防止汽蚀的产生最有效办法就是使阀门内各级压降都小于发生汽蚀的最小压差,即临界压差。当控制阀所要承受的压差远远大于临界压差时,可采用多级减压的结构形式。在设计多级节流调节阀时,使每一级节流所承受的压差要小于允许压差,这样每一级都消耗一部分能量,使得下一级的人口压力相对较低,减小了下一级的压差,压力恢复低,这样可减少节流部位的流速,避免汽蚀的产生和减少汽蚀的作用。当然,如果工况系统不宜于多级减压结构 , 也可采用节流套筒的结构。

最后,应规划合理的开车工艺。生产现场的开车工艺对调节阀的使用情况至关重要 , 对于工作压力较高而前后压差较低的调节阀更是如此。

针对机械振动

首先应正确选择零部件。如果阀瓣快速的忽高忽低的变化,阀门定位器灵敏度又太高,调节器输出微小的变化或飘移,就会立即转换成定位器输出信号很大,致使阀振荡。调节阀的摩擦力太小,外界输入信号有微小的变化或飘移,会立即传递给阀瓣,使其振动。相反,如调节阀的摩擦力太大,则在小信号时动作不了,信号大时一经动作又产生过大的现象,会使调节阀产生迟滞性振荡。遇到这种情况,应当减小调节阀相应部分的阻尼来解决,如更换填料等。

其次应注意阀杆连接。在一些工艺机组正常运转的过程中,高温高压蒸汽持续通过高压调门阀芯,引起高压调门阀芯、阀杆之间有力矩的产生,从而对旋子销子产生剪切,加上调门支座振动的原因,使圆柱销受到严重影响,直到断裂损坏,高压调门阀杆脱落,威胁机组安全,如果修理不当就会留下极大的安全隐患。

最后,调节阀安装位置应远离振动源,如不可避免,应采取预防措施。

针对涡流

针对涡流,首先应使用适当间隔的、细小的迂回通路阀内件。当流体流过具有适当间隔的小孔径套筒或其它迂回通路时,能获得较小的喷射流体积,进而减小涡流体积,降低了机械能与声学能之间的转换效率,也有效地降低了振动和噪音。同时,较小的涡流能把液体产生的声学能移至较高的频率带,管壁对较高频率带的噪声具有良好的衰减作用,而且人耳对高频率的声音具用较低的响应效应。

采用阶梯式阀内件也可以减小振动和噪声。由于阶梯式路径弯曲,流体流动不畅,造成流动过程中的摩擦,产生较大的压力损失,消耗流体的能量,从而达到降低振动和噪音的目的。

其他方法

采用消音器与提高管壁厚度同样可以减少噪音与振动。

消音器是直接安装在控制阀的下游部位,与控制阀串接在一起,可用来吸收控制阀的声能,在高流量、低压降的情况下,更能体现它经济地控制噪声的特点,一般情况,它吸收噪声的能力达25分贝在右。

增加控制阀下游管道的管壁厚度,能有效地降低控制阀的振动和噪音。但是噪音形成后,不会因在管道中传送距离的远近而变弱。因此,控制阀下游的所有管线系统都必须使用同样壁厚的管道。

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